Prostate Cancer References

Note that the underlined portion of each reference summarizes the citation. The second sentence is the title of the work.

1986
Prostate cancer mortality rate is correlated with the per capita consumption of milk. International comparison of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon and per capita food consumption. David P. Rose, MD., Ph.D., DSc., Andrea P Boyar, Ph.D., RD., Ernest L. Wynder, M.D. Cancer. 1986, Vol.58, 2363-2371.

1998
High consumption of dairy products is associated with a 50% increased risk of prostate cancer. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and the risk of prostate cancer (Sweden). John M. Chang, Edward Giovannucci, Swen-Olof Andersson, Jonathan Yuen, Hans Olov Adami, Alicja Wolk. Cancer Causes and Control. 1998, Vol.9, Issue 6, 559-566.

2002
Correlation between milk and prostate cancer suggest milk effects development of male genital organ. Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostate cancers in relation to world dietary practices. Ganmaa D., Li XM, Wang J., Qin L.Q., Wang P.Y., Sato A. International Journal of Cancer. 10 March 2002, Vol. 98, Issue 2, 262-267.

2005
Dairy may increase the risk of prostate cancer through a calcium-related pathway. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. Marilyn Tseng, Rosalind A. Breslow, Barry I. Graubard, Regina G. Ziegler. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. May 2005, Vol. 81, No.5, 1147-1154. Conclusions:

2007
Non-fat milk was associated with increased risk of total prostate cancer. Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy product intake and prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Park S.Y., Murphy S.P., Wilkens L.R., Stram D.O., Henderson B.E., Kolonel L.N. American Journal of Epidemiology. December 1st 2007, Vol.166, Issue11, 1259-1269.

2007
Non-fat milk was associated with increased risk of advanced prostate cancer. Calcium, dairy foods, and risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer. Yikyung Park, Panagiota N. Mitrou, Victor Kipnis, Albert Hollenbeck, Arthur Schatzkin, Michael F. Leitzmann. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2007, Vol.166, Issue11, 1270-1279.

2007
Milk contains considerable amounts of hormones and calcium which are associated with prostate cancer risk. Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studiesU Li-Qiang Qin, Ph.D., Jia-Ying Xu, S.M., Pei-Yu Wang, Ph.D., Jian Tong, Ph.D., Kazuhiko Hoshi Ph.D., M.D. Asai Pacific Journal Clinical Nutrition. 2007, Vol.16, No.13, 467-476.

2007
Milk may cause increases in hormonal levels of prepubertal girls and boys. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis. Janet W. Rich-Edwards, Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Michael N. Pollak, Erika K. Nakamoto, Ken Kleinman, Uush Tserendolgor, Walter C. Willett, A.Lindsay Frazier. Nutrition Journal. 2007, Vol. 6, 28.

2007
A diet rich in dairy during childhood is associated with a greater risk of colorectal cancer in adulthood. Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort. Jolieke C van der Pols, Chris Bain, David Gunnell, George Davey Smith, Clare Frobisher, Richard M. Martin. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. December 2007, Vol.86, No.6, 1722-1729.

2008
Dairy may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Dairy product, saturated fatty acid, and calcium intake and prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of Japanese men. Norie Kurahashi, Manami Inoue, Motoki Iwasazuki, Shoichiro Tsugane. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. April 2008, Vol.17, Issue 4, 930-937.

2008
A 35 gram/day increase in the consumption of dairy protein was associated with a 32% increased risk in prostate cancer. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Allen N.E., Key T.J., Appleby P.N., Travis R.C., Roddam A.W., Tjonneland A., Johnsen N.F., Overvad K., Linseisen J., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., Pischon T., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Kiemeney L. Tagliabue G., Palli D., Vineis P., Tumino R., Trichopoulou A., Kassapa C. Trichopoulos D., Ardanaz E., Larranaga N., Tormo M.J., Gonzalez C.A., Ferrari P., Rinaldi S. Riboli E. British Journal of Cancer. May 6 2008, Vol.98, No.9, 1574-1581.

2009
Dairy products should not be recommended in a vegetarian diet. Should dairy be recommended as part of a healthy vegetarian diet? Counterpoint. Amy Joy Lanou. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. March 2009, Vol.89, No.5, 1638s-1642s.

2010
Patent. Milk is inadequate for human consumption. Milk and milk-based products modified to exhibit a reduced insulinemic index and/or reduced mitogenic activity. Application number PCT/EP2010/054973. Inventor Bodo Melnik.

2010
Dairy products, especially milk, are involved in the etiology of prostate cancer. Diet and prostate cancer risk with specific focus on dairy products and dietary calcium: a case-control study. Raimond S., Mabrouk J.B., Shatenstein B., Maisonneuve P.,Ghadirian P. Prostate July 1st 2010, Vol.70, Issue10, 1054-1065.

2012
Daily milk consumption in adolescence was associated with a 3.2–fold increased risk of advanced prostate cancer. Frequent milk intake in adolescence increases risk of advanced prostate cancer. Milk intake in early life and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Johanna E. Torfadottir, Laufey Streingrimsdottir, Lorelei Mucci, Thor Aspelund, Julie L. Kasperzyk, Orn Olafsson, Katja Fall, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Tamara B. Harris, Lenore Launer, Eirikur Jonsson, Hrafn Tulinius, Meir Stampfer, Hans-Olov Adami, Vilmundur Gudnasson, Unnur A. Valdimarsdottir. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2012, Vol.175, Issue 2, 144-153.

2013
Low-fat milk intake above 2.5 serving/day is positively associated with early stage of prostate cancer, whereas whole milk intake was associated with fatal prostate cancer. Whole milk intake is associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality among U.S. male physicians. Yan Song, Jorge E. Chavarro, Yin Cao, Weiliang Qui, Loreli Mucci, Howard D. Sesso, Meir J. Stampfer, Edward Giovannucci, Michael Pollak, Simin Liu, Jing Ma. The Journal of Nutrition. February 1 2013, Vol.143, No.2, 189-196.

CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS

1984
Reducing dietary intake of phosphorus increases blood concentrations of vitamin D. Phosphate deprivation increases serum 1, 25-(OH) 2-vitamin D concentrations in healthy men. William J Maierhofer, Richard W. Gray, Jacob Lemann, Jr. Kidney International. 1984, Vol. 25, 571-575.

1986
Oral intake of phosphorus causes rapid, large, and persistent changes in serum concentrations of vitamin D. Oral intake of phosphorus can determine the serum concentrations of 1, 25-dihyrdoxyvitamin D by determining the production rate in humans. Anthony A. Portael, Bernard P.Halloran, Margaret M. Murphy, R. Curtis Morris Jr. Journal of Clinical Investigation. January 1986, Vol. 77, 7-12.

1989
Serum concentrations of vitamin D vary inversely with 24-hour mean serum concentrations of phosphorus. Physiologic regulation of the serum concentration of 1, 25-Dihydrocyvitamin D by phosphorus in normal men. Anthony A. Portael, Bernard P. Halloran, R. Curtis Morris Jr. Journal of Clinical Investigation. May 1989, Vol. 83, No. 5, 1494-1499.

1998
Avoid high calcium intake to reduce the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Edward Giovannucci, Eric B. Rimm., Alicja Wolk., Alberto Ascherio, Meir J. Stamper., Graham A. Coldiz., Walter C. Willett. Journal of Cancer Research, February 1st 1998, Vol.58, 442-447.

2001
Calcium and dairy are both associated with a greater risk of prostate cancer. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer in the Physicians’ Health Study. June M Chan, Meir J. Stampfer, Jing Ma, Peter H. Gahn, J. Michael Gaziano, Edward L. Giovannucci. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. October 2001, Vol. 74, No.4, 549-554.

2003
Calcium intake above recommendations may increase the risk for prostate cancer. Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. July 2003, Vol.12, 597. Results: A high calcium intake above 2000 mg / day may increase the risk of prostate cancer by down regulating the active form of vitamin D.

2005
Dairy consumption may increase prostate cancer through a calcium-related pathway. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. Marilyn Tseng, Rosalind A. Breslow, Barry I. Gruabard, Regina G. Ziegler. American Journal Clinical Nutrition. May 2005, Vol.81, No.5, 1147-1154.

2005
Calcium from milk increases the risk of prostate cancer. Role of diet in prostate cancer development and progression. Chan J.M., Gann P.H., Giovannucci E.L. Journal of Clinical Oncology. November 10th 2005, Vol.23, No.32, 8152-8160.

2005
Men with the highest intake of calcium and dairy products were more likely to develop prostate cancer than men with the lowest intake. Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Xiang Gao, Michael P. LaValley, Katherine L. Tucker. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. December 7th 2005, Vol.97, Issue 23, 1768-1777.

2006
Calcium intakes above 1500 mg/day, by lowering vitamin D concentrations, is associated with a higher risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancer. A prospective study of calcium intake and incident and fatal prostate cancer. Edward Giovannucci, Yan Liu, Meir J. Stampfer, Walter C. Willett. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. February 2006, Vol.15, 203.

2010
Phosphate from dairy is a likely source of prostate cancer. Dairy products and prostate cancer risk. Newmark H.L., Heaney R.P. Nutrition and Cancer. 2010, Vol.62, No.3, 297-299.

2010
Calcium intake may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at low intake. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese. Lesley M. Butler, Alvin S. Wong. Woon-Puay Koh, Renwel Wang, Jian-Min Yuan, Mimi C. Yu. Journal of Cancer Research, June 15 2010, Vol.70, Issue12, 4941-4948.

2010
High intake of both calcium and protein from dairy, and high serum concentrations of IGF-1, were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Diet and cancer prevention: contributions from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study. Gonzalez C.A., Riboli E. European Journal of Cancer. September 2010, Vol.46, Issue.14, 2555-2562.

2012
Elevated risk for fatal prostate cancer is observed in men with high serum calcium levels. A prospective study of total and ionized serum calcium and time to fatal prostate cancer. Gary G. Schwartz, Halcyon G. Skinner. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. October 1st 2012, Vol.21, 1768-1773.

2015
Calcium intakes above 2000 mg/day were associated with greater risk of total prostate cancer and lethal and high grade cancers 12-16 years after exposure. High phosphorus intake was associated with greater risk of total, lethal, and high-grade cancers 0-8 years after exposure, and was independent of calcium. Phosphorus is independently associated with the risk of lethal and high grade prostate cancer. Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study. Kathryn M. Wilson, Irene M. Shui, Loreli A. Mucci, Edward Giovannucci. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. January 2015, Vol.101, No.1, 173-183.

2015
Calcium from low-fat milk and cheese may increase total prostate cancer, but not calcium from non-dairy. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Dagfinn Aune, Deborah A. Navarro Rosenblatt, Doris SM Chan, Ana Rita Vieira, Rui Vieira, Darren C. Greenwood, Lars J. Vatten, Teresa Norat. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. January 2015, Vol. 101, No.1, 87-117.

 VITAMIN D

1983
Vitamin D3 metabolites show promise for the inhibition of cancer growth. Inhibition of human cancer cell growth by 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 metabolites. Frampton R.J., Omond S.A., Eisman J.A. Cancer Research September 1983, Vol.43, No. 9, 4443-4447.

1984
Phosphate deprivation increases serum 1, 25-(OH) 2-vitamin D concentrations in healthy men. William J Maierhofer, Richard W. Gray, Jacob Lemann, Jr. Kidney International. 1984, Vol. 25, 571-575.

1986
Oral intake of phosphorus can determine the serum concentrations of 1, 25-dihyrdoxyvitamin D by determining the production rate in humans. Anthony A. Portael, Bernard P.Halloran, Margaret M. Murphy, R. Curtis Morris Jr. Journal of Clinical Investigation. January 1986, Vol. 77, 7-12.

1989
Physiologic regulation of the serum concentration of 1, 25-Dihydrocyvitamin D by phosphorus in normal men. Anthony A. Portael, Bernard P. Halloran, R. Curtis Morris Jr. Journal of Clinical Investigation. May 1989, Vol. 83, No. 5, 1494-1499.

1990
Is vitamin D deficiency a risk for prostate cancer? (Hypothesis). Schwartz G.G., Hulka B.S. Anticancer Research. September-October 1990, Vol. 10, No. 5A, 1307-1311.

1995
Vitamin D maybe an alternative for the pharmacological treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Vitamin D receptor expression, 24-hydroxylase activity, and inhibition of growth by 1 alpha, 25-dihdroxyvitamin D3 in seven human prostatic carcinoma cell lines. Gary J. Miller., Gary E. Stapleton., Tammy E. Hedlund, Kirsten A. Moffatt. Clinical Cancer Research. September 1995, Vol. 1, 997-1003.

1996
Vitamin D is an important determinant of prostate cancer. Association of prostate cancer with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. Taylor J.A., Hirvonen A., Watson M., Pittman G., Mohler J.L., Bell D.A. Cancer Research. September 15th 1996, Vol. 56, No. 18, 4108-4110.

1997
Vitamin D reduces the risk of invasive prostate cancer and suggest a role for vitamin-D compounds in the chemoprevention of invasive prostate cancer. 1 alpha, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) inhibits the invasiveness of human prostate cancer cells. Schwartz G.G., Wang M.H., Zang M., Singh G.P. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. September 1997, Vol. 6, No. 9, 727-732.

1998
Vitamin-D and its chemical analogues are found to have biological antiproliferative effects on different malignant cell lines. Structural variants of the vitamin-D analogue EB1089 reduce its ligand sensitivity and promoter selectivity. Marcus Quack., Andreas Clarin., Ernest Binderup., Fredrik Bjorkling. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 1998, Vol .71, 340-350.

2000
Serum levels of vitamin-D may be involved in disease progression and is a potential marker of prognosis in patients with prostate cancer. Association between serum 25(OH)-D and death from prostate cancer. Tretli S., Hernes E., Berg J.P., Hestvik U.E., Robsahm T.E. British Journal of Cancer. 2000 February, Vol. 100, No.3, 450-454.

2001
Vitamin D and specifically calcium from dairy play important roles in the development of prostate cancer. Dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer. Jun M. Chan, Edward L. Giovannucci. Epidemiologic Reviews. 2001, Vol.23, N0.1, 87-92.

2001
Findings has ramifications for both preventive and therapy of prostate cancer with vitamin D compounds. Reduced 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity in human prostate cancer cells correlates with decreased susceptibility to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 – induced growth inhibition. Ju-Yu Hsu, David Feldman, John E. McNeal, and Donna M. Peehl. Cancer Research. April 1st 2001, Vol. 61, 2852-2856.

2003
Clinical trials demonstrate vitamin D exhibits therapeutic activity in men with prostate cancer. Inhibition of prostate cancer growth by vitamin D: Regulation of target gene expression. Aruna V. Krishnam, Donna M. Peehl, David Feldman. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. February 2003, Vol.88, Issue. 2, 363-371.

2006
Evidence suggest that vitamin D deficiency may account for several thousand premature deaths from colon, breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer annually. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Cedric F. Garland, Dr. Ph, Frank C. Garland, Ph.D., Edward D. Gorham, Ph.D., Martin Lipkin, M.D., Harold Newmark, Sc.D., Sharif B. Mohr, MPH., Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D. American Journal of Public Health. 2006 February, Vol. 96, No. 2, 252-261.

2006
Results show a crosstalk between vitamin-D and Vitamin-A, and a role they play in the control of cell survival. Convergence of vitamin D and retinoic acid signaling at a common hormone response element. Tavera-Mendoza L., Wang T.T., Lallemant B., Zhang R., Nagai Y., Bourdeau V., Ramirez-Calderum M., Desbarats J., Mader S., White J.H. European Molecular Biology Organization. EMBO reports, February 2006, Vol. 7, No. 2, 180-185.

2009
This study shows a strong association between 25(OH) D levels and cause-specific mortality in patients with prostate cancer. Association between serum 25(OH) D and death from prostate cancer. S. Tretli, E. Hernes, J.P. Berg, U.E. Hestvik, T.E. Robsahm. British Journal of Cancer. 2009 February 10, Vol.100, No.3, 450-454.

2012
A vitamin D deficient diet may be detrimental towards the growth of androgen-insensitive prostate tumor, further emphasizing the role of dietary vitamin D in the prevention of prostate cancer. Effect of dietary vitamin D and calcium on the growth of androgen-insensitive human prostate tumor in a Murine model. Ray R., Banks M., Abuzahra H., Eddy V.J., Persons K.S., Lucia M.S., Lambert J.R., Holick M.F. Anticancer Research. March 2012, Vol.32, No.3, 727-731.

2014
Vitamin D deficiency in African American men is positively associated with tumor stage. Vitamin D deficiency predicts prostate biopsy outcomes. Murphy A.B/, Nyame T., Martin I.K., Catalona W.J., Hollowell C.M., Nadler R.B. Kozlowski J.M., Perry K.T., Kajdacsy-Balla A., Kittles R. Clinical Cancer Research. May 1st 2014, Vol.20, No. 9, 2289.

IGF-1 HORMONE REFERENCES

(Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1)

1997
IGF-1 may increase the risk of prostate cancer in humans. Insulin-like growth factor-1 in relation to prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. C.S. Mantzoros, A. Tzonou, L.B. Signorello, M. Stampfer, D. Trichopoulos, H-O Adami. British Journal of Cancer. 1997, Vol.76, No.9, 1115-1118.

1998
A positive association exist between IGF-1 levels and prostate cancer. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 and prostate cancer risk: A prospective study. June M. Chan., Meir J. Srampfer., Edward Giovannucci., Peter H. Gann., Jing Ma., Peter Wilkinson, Charles H. Hennekens, Michael Pollak. Science January 23rd 1998, Vol. 279, No. 5450, 563-566.

1998
Elevated IGF-1 levels predicts the risk of prostate cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and prostate cancer risk: A population-based, case-control study. Alicja Wolk, Christos S. Mantzoros, Swen-Olof Andersson, Reinhold Bergstrom, Lisa B. Signorello, Pagona Lagiou, Hams0Olov Adami, Dimitrios Trichopoulos. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1998, Vol. 90, No. 12, 911-915.

2000
IGF-1 levels is associated with several common cancers. Role of insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression. Yu H., Rohan T. Journal of National Cancer Institute. September 20th 2000, Vol. 92, No. 18, 1472-1489.

2000
Prostate cancer risk is increased in men with elevated plasma IGF-1. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Par Stattin, Annika Bylund, Sabina Rinaldi, Carine Biessy, Henri Dechaud, Ulf-Hakan Stenman, Lars Egevad, Elio Riboli, Goran Hallmans, Rudolf Kaaks. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2000, Vol.92, No.23, 1910-1917.

2001
Men with the highest levels of IGF-1 had a 2.6-fold higher risk of prostate cancer. Insulin-like growth factors, and prostate cancer. A population-based case-control study in china. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. May 2001, Vol.10, 421.

2001
IGF-1 and vitamin D regulatory systems may interact to affect prostate cancer risk. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, insulin-like growth factors, and prostate cancer risk. A population-based case-control study in china. Anand P. Chokkalingam, Katherine A. McGlynn, Yu-tang Gao, Michael Pollak, Jie Deng, Isabel A. Sesterhenn, F.K. Mostofi, Joseph F. Fraumeni Jr., Ann W. Hsing. Cancer Research. June 1st 2001, Vol. 61, No. 11, 4333-4336.

2002
Cancer risk could be reduced by dietary manipulation of IGF levels by controlling intake of milk. Dietary correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Michelle D. Homes, Michael N. Pollak, Walter C. Willett, Susan E. Hankinson. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. September 2002, Vol.11, No. 9, 852-861.

2002
Circulating levels of IGF-1 and its binding protein may predict the risk of advanced-stage prostate cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 as predictors of advanced-stage prostate cancer. Chan J.M., Stampfer M.J., Ma J., Gann P., Gaziano J.M., Pollak M., Goovannucci E. Journal of National Cancer Institute. July 2002, Vol.94. No.14, 1099-1106.

2004
An increase in milk intake from 200 ml to 600 ml per day corresponds to a 30% increase in circulating IGF-1 in children. Animal protein intake, serum insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth in healthy 2.5 year old Danish children. Camilla Hoppe, Tina Rovenna Udam, Lotte Lauritzen, Christen Molgarred, Anders Juul, Kim Fleisher Michaelsen. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. August 2004, Vol. 80, No.2, 447-452.

2004
Circulating levels of IGF-1 at a young age may be associated with prostate cancer risk. High levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor increase prostate cancer risk: A prospective study in a population-based nonscreened cohort. Par Stattin, Sabina Rinaldi, Carine Biessy, Ulf-Hakan Stenman, Goran Hallmans, Rudolf Kaaks. Journal of Clinical Oncology. August 1st 2004, Vol. 22, No.15, 3104-3112.

2004
Compounds in milk stimulates IGF-1 production in eight-year-old boys. High intakes of skimmed milk, but not meat, increase serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in eight-year-old boys. C. Hoppe, C. Molgaard, A. juul, K.F. Michaelsen. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004, Vol. 58, 1211-1216.

2010
Patents. Milk intake is inadequate for human consumption. Milk and milk-based products modified to exhibit a reduced insulinemic index and/or reduced mitogenic activity. Application number PCT/EP2010/054973. Inventor Bodo Melnik.

ESTROGEN REFERENCES

1988
Excessive estrogens levels induce a malignant development in organs due to errors in cell division known as DNA copying errors and chromosomal translocations. Estrogens as a cause of human cancer: The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation Award Lecture. B.E. Henderson, R.Ross, L. Berstein. Cancer Research. January 15th 1988, Vol. 48, 246-253.

1994
Developmental estrogenization and prostatic neoplasia. Risto Santti, Sari Makela, Liisa Pylkkanen, Retha R. Newbold, John A. McLachlan. The Prostate. February 1994, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, 67-78.

2003
Recommends clinical trials to study anti-estrogen medical treatment of advanced prostate cancer. New insights into the role of estrogens and their receptors in prostate cancer. Bonkhoff H., Motherby H., Fixemer T. Urologe A. December 2003, Vol. 42, No. 12, 1594-1601.

2004
Estrogen levels in prostate fluid are correlated very well with the prostate cancer. Estrogen: one of the risk factors in milk for prostate cancer. Qin L.Q., Wang P.Y., Kaneko T., Hoshi K., Sato A. Medical Hypothesis. 2004, Vol.62, No.1, 133-142.

2005
Increased circulating estrogens levels may increase the risk of prostate cancer. The role of estrogens in prostate carcinogenesis: A rationale for chemoprevention. Maarten C. Bosland, DVSc., Ph.D. REVIEWS IN UROLOGY. 2005, Vol. 7, Suppl 3, s4-s10.

2006
Exposure of estrogens early in life predispose the prostate gland to disease upon aging. The role of estrogens in normal and abnormal development of the prostate gland. Prins G.S., Huang L., Birch L., Pu Y. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. November 2006, Vol. 1089, 1-13.

2007
Dominated interest in androgen’s association with prostate cancer has kept hidden estrogen’s association with prostate cancer. Estrogen and prostate cancer: an eclipsed truth in an androgen-dominated scenario. Carruba G. Journal Cell Biochemistry. November 1st 2007, Vol.102, No.4, 899-911.

2010
Sexual maturation of prepubertal children could be affected by the ordinary intake of cow milk. Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows. Maruyama K, Oshima T, Ohyama K. Pediatric International. 2010 February, Vol.52, No.1, 33-38.

INSULIN RESPONSE FROM MILK

1986
Insulin response from milk was approximately 5-fold greater than would be anticipated from the glucose response. The serum insulin and plasma glucose responses to milk and fruit products in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Gannom M.C., Nuttal F.Q., Krezowski P.A., Billington C.J., Parker s. Diabetologia. November 1986, Vol. 29, No.11, 784-791.

1989
Neither the carbohydrate content nor the glycemic index enable prediction of postprandial insulin requirements in insulin-deficient diabetes. Comparison of glycemic response and insulin requirement after mixed meals of equal carbohydrate content in healthy, type-1, and type-2 diabetic man. Schrezenmeir J., Tato F., Kustner E., Krause U., Hommel G., Asp N.G., Kasper H., Beyer J. Journal of Klin Wochenschr. October 2nd 1989, Vol.67, No.19, 985-994.

2001
Milk products have 3-fold to 6-fold higher insulinemic indexes than expected from the corresponding glycemic indexes. Inconsistency between glycemic and insulinemic responses to regular and fermented milk products. Elin M. Osman, G.M. Liljeberg Elmstahl., Inger ME Bjorck. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. July 2001, Vol. 74, No.1, 96-100.

2004
Proteins from milk have insulinotropic properties. Glycemia and insulinemia in healthy subjects after lactose-equivalent meals of milk and other food proteins…Mikael Nilsson, Marianne Stenberg, Anders H. Frid, Jens J Holst, Inger M.E. Bjorck. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. November 2004, Vol. 80, No.5, 1246-1253.

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