Breast Cancer References

DAIRY ASSOCIATIONS

1986
Risk of breast cancer is positively associated with consumption of cheese and milk. Consumption of dairy products and alcohol in a case-control study of breast cancer. Monique G. Le, Lawrence H. Moulton, Catherine Hill, Andrew Kramar. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1986, Vol. 77, No.3, 633-636.

1989
Dairy intake is linked with breast cancer. Calorie-providing nutrients and risk of breast cancer. Paolo Toniolo, Elio Riboli, Fulvia Protta, Martine Charrel, Alberto P.M. Cappa. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. February 15th 1989, Vol. 81, No.4, 278-286.

2002
Whole milk and cheese is associated with the risk of breast cancer. Dairy foods and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Montevideo, Uruguay. Ronco A.L., De Stefani E., Dattoli R. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. October 2002, Vol.11, No.5, 457-463.

2003
Intake of dairy and red meat during premenopausal years is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Premenopausal fat intake and risk of breast cancer. Eunyoung Cho, Donna Spiegelman, David J. Hunter, Wendy Y. Chen, Meir J. Stampfer, Graham A. Colditz, Walter C. Willett. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2003, Vol.96, No.14, 1079-1085.

2005
Increased consumption of milk and dairy products may have adverse effects on the development of hormone-dependent cancers. The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers. Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Akio Sato. Medical Hypothesis. 2005, Vol. 65, Issue. 6, 1028-1037.

2013
Intake of high fat dairy, but not low fat dairy, was related to a higher risk of mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. High and low fat dairy intake, recurrence, and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. Candyce H. Kroenke, Marilyn L. Kwan, Carol Sweeny, Adrienne Castillo, Bette J. Caan. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. November 20th 2013, Vol.105, No.9, 616-623.

2014
Milk intake is associated with a high rate of bone fractures and mortality in both men and women. With every glass of milk consumed the hazard ratio of hip fracture increased. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies. Karl Michaelsson, Alicija Wolk, Sophie Langenskiold, Samar Basu, Eva Warensjo Lemming, Hakan Melhus, Lisa Byberg. British Medical Journal. 2014, Vol. 349, g6015.

ESTROGEN ASSOCIATIONS 

1988
Risk of breast cancer could be reduced by minimizing the therapeutic use of estrogen in postmenopausal women. The role of estrogens and progestogens in epidemiology and prevention of breast cancer European Journal of Clinical Oncology. January 1988, Vol.24, No.1, 29-43.

1995
Data confirms estrogen levels is linked with breast cancer. A prospective study of endogenous estrogens and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Paolo G. Toniolo, Mortimer Levitz, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Sila Banerjee, Karen L. Koenig, Roy E. Shore, Philip Strax, Benard S. Pasternack. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1995, Vol. 87, No.3, 190-197.

1996
Evidence supports the association between estrogen levels and breast cancer and testosterone levels precede breast cancer occurrence. Serum sex hormone levels after menopause and subsequent breast cancer. Franco Berrino, Paola Muti, Andrea Micheli, Gianfranco Bolelli, Vittorio Krogh, Raffaella Sciajno, Paola Pisani, Salvatore Panico, Giorgio Secreto. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. March 6th 1996, Vol.88, No.5, 291-296.

1996
Prediagnostic serum estrogens and androgens are related to the subsequent diagnosis of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Relation of prediagnostic serum estrogen and androgen levels to breast cancer risk. J.F. Dorgan, C. Longcope, H.E. Stephenson Jr., R.T. Falk, R. Miller, C. Franz, L.Kahle, W.S. Campbell, J.A. Tangrea, A. Schatzkin. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention. July 1996, Vol.5, 533.

1998
Data provides strong evidence for a causal relationship between postmenopausal estrogen levels and the risk of breast cancer. Plasma sex hormones levels and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. March 6th 1998, Vol.90, No.17, 291-296.

2002
The risk of breast cancer increased significantly with increasing concentrations of all sex hormones studied. Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002, Vol.94, No.8, 606-616.

2003
Estrogen is capable of converting an innocent cell into a cancerous tumor. Estrogen and DNA damage: The silent source of breast cancer. Katharine Miller. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2003, Vol.95, No.2, 100-102.

2006
Higher levels of estrogens and testosterone are associated with increased breast cancer risk, regardless of predicted risk of family history of breast cancer. Endogenous steroid hormone concentrations and risk of breast cancer: Does the association vary by a woman’s predicted breast cancer risk. A. Heather Eliassen, Stacy A. Missmer, Shelly S. Tworoger, Susan E. Hankinson. Journal of Clinical Oncology. April 20th 2006, Vol.24, No.12, 1823-1830.

2007
Determination of naturally occurring estrogens and androgens in retail samples of milk and eggs. Courant F., Antignac J.P., Maume D., Monteau F., Andre F., Le Bizec B. Food Additives and Contaminants. December 2007, Vol.24, No.12, 1358-1366.

2009
High levels of estrogen in milk may have a dietary influence on cancer risk. Quantitative measurement of endogenous estrogen metabolites, risk factors for development of breast cancer, in commercial milk products by LC-Mm/Ms. Farlow D.W., Xu X., Veenstra T.D. Journal Chromatography, B Analytical Technologies in Biomedical Life Sciences. May 2009, Vol.877, No.13, 1327-1334.

2010
Estrogens in milk is absorbed in children, and sexual maturity could be affected by the ordinary intake of cow milk. Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows. Maruyama K, Oshima T, Ohyama K. Pediatric International. 2010 February, Vol.52, No.1, 33-38.

2011
Estrogens in breast tissue: a systematic review. Lusine Yaghjyan, Graham A. Colditz. Cancer Causes Control. April 2011, Vol. 22. Issue.4, 529-540.

2012
Nearly all estrogens, metabolites, and their metabolic pathways were associated with breast cancer. Estrogen metabolism and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2012, Vol.104, No.4, 326-339.

IGF-1 ASSOCIATIONS

2000
High levels of IGF-1 and low levels of its binding protein are associated with increased risk of breast cancer and prostate cancer. Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression. Herbert Yu, Thomas Rohan. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. September 20th 2000, Vol.92, No.18, 1472-1489.

2002
Insulin-like growth factor-1 and estrogen interactions in breast cancer. Mary Beth Martin, Adriana Stoica. The Journal of Nutrition. December 1st 2002, Vol. 132, No. 12, 3799s-3801s.

2002
Insulin-like growth factors and breast cancer risk in Chinese women. Herbert Yu, Fan Jin, Xiao-Ou Shu, Benjamin D.L. Li, Qi Dai, Jia-Rong Chang, Hans J. Berkel, Wei Zhang. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. August 2002, Vol.11, 705.

2003
Insulin-like growth factor and breast cancer risk: evidence from observational studies. Hankinson S.E., Schernhammer E.S. Journal of Breast Disease. 2003, Vol. 17, 27-40.

2003
The IGF-1 receptor in cancer biology. Renato Baserga, Francesca Peruzzi, Krysztof Reiss. International Journal of Cancer. December 20th, 2003, Vol. 107, Issue 6, 873-877.

2010
Patents. Milk and milk-based products modified to exhibit a reduced insulinemic index and/or reduced mitogenic activity. Application number PCT/EP2010/054973. Inventor Bodo Melnik.

2010
Dietary predictors of insulin-like growth factor system in adolescent females: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). Jean M. Kerver, Joseph C. Gardner, Joanne F. Dorgan, Cliff J. Rosen, Ellen M. Velie. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. March 2010, Vol. 91, No. 3, 643-650.

2011
Prevention of breast cancer: the case for studying inhibition of the IGF-1 actions. J. Smith, D. Axelrod, B. Singh, D. Kleinberg. Annals of Oncology. 2011, Vol.22, (Suppl 1), i50-i52.

2012
Insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and lobule type in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Megan S. Rice, Rulla M. Tamimi, James L. Connolly, Laura C. Collins, Dejun Shen, Michael N. Pollak, Bernard Rosner, Susan E. Hankinson, Shelley S. Tworoger. Breast Cancer Research. March 2012, Vol. 14, R44.

2014
Risk of breast cancer recurrence associated with carbohydrate intake and tissue expression of IGF-1 receptor. Jennifer A. Emond, John P. Pierce, Loki Natarajan, Laaml R. Gapuz, John Nguyen, Barbara A. Parker, Nissi M. Varki, Ruth E. Patterson. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention. July 2014, Vol.23, 1273.

2015
The role of the insulin-like growth factor-1 system in breast cancer.   Panagiotis F. Christopoulos, Pavlos Msaouel, Michael Koutsilieris.   Journal of Molecular Cancer. 2015, Vol. 14, 43.

VITAMIN A ASSOCIATIONS

1994
9-cis retinoic acid inhibits growth of breast cancer cells and down regulates estrogen-receptor RNA and Protein. Mark Rubin, Eya Fenig, Angelika Rosenauer, Celia Menendez-Botet, Charles Achkar, Jacqueline M. Bentel, Joachim Yahalom, John Mendelsohn, Wilson H. Miller Jr. Cancer Research. December 15th, 1994 Vol.54, Issue 24, 6549-6556.

1995
Inhibitory effects of 9-cis and all-trans retinoic acid on 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3-induced bone resorption. Kindmark A., Melhus H., Ljunghall S., Ljunggren O. Calcified Tissue International. September 1995, Vol. 57, Issue 3, 242-244.

1997
Recent advances in chemoprevention of cancer. Hong W.K., Sporn M.B. Science November 7th 1997, Vol. 278, (5340), 1073-1077.

1997
Intake of carrots, spinach, and supplements containing vitamin A in relation to risk of breast cancer. Lngnecker M/P., Newcomb P.A., Mittendorf R., Greenberg E.R., Willett W.C. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention. November 1997, Vol.6, No.11, 887-892.

1998
All retinoids were capable of inducing apoptosis, in a dose and time-dependent way. Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancinoma cell line by RAR and RXR selective retinoids. Toma S., Isnard L., Riccardi L. Bollag W. Anticancer Research. March 1998, Vol. 18, No. 2A, 935-942. Conclusions:

1998
Retinoic acid from vitamin A blocks proliferation of breast cancer cells and induces apoptosis. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induced apoptosis is preceded by G1 arrest in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Manfiarotti R., Danova M., Alberici R., Pellicciari C. British Journal of Cancer. 1998, Vol. 77, No. 2, 186-191. Conclusion: Conclusion:

2000
The retinoids and cancer prevention mechanisms. Dragnev K.H., Rigas J.R., Dmitrovsky E. The Oncologist, October 2000, Vol.5. No.5, 361-368.

2003
Differential regulation of protein expression, growth and apoptosis by natural and synthetic retinoids. Pratt M.A., Niu M., White D. Journal of Cell Biochemistry. November 2003, Vol. 90, No. 4, 692-708.

2004
Circulating endogenous retinoic acid concentrations among participants enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of retinyl palmitate. F. Revecca, L. Sedjo, James Ranger-Moore, Janet Foote, Neal E. Craft, David S. Alberts, Min-Jian Xu, Anna R. Giuliano. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. November 2004, Vol.13, 1687.

2005
Suppression of mammary carcinoma growth by retinoic acid: pro-apoptotic genes are targets for retinoic acid receptor and cellular retinoic acid binding protein-2 signaling. Leslie J. Donato, Noa Noy. Cancer Research. September 15th 2005, Vol. 65, 8193.

2012
Retinoids and breast cancer: new clues to increase their activity and selectivity. Enrico Garattini, Garbriela Paroni, Mineko Terao. Breast Cancer Research. 2013, Vol.14, 111.

2014
Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 inhibits tumor growth by two distinct mechanisms. Amanda C. Vreeland, Liraz Levi, Wei Zhang, Daniel C. Berry, Noa Noy. Journal of Biological Chemistry. December 5th 2014, Vol.289, 34065-34073.

VITAMIN A, HIP FRACTURES, AND BONE DISEASE

1998
Excessive dietary intake of Vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of hip fracture. Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Kindmark A., Bergstrom R., Holmberg L., Mallmin H., Wolk A., Ljunghall S. Annuals of Internal Medicine 1998, Vol. 129, No. 10, 770-778.

1999
Vitamin A antagonizes the action of vitamin D in rats. Cynthia M. Rohde, Margaret Manatt, Margaret Clagett-Dame, Hector F. DeLuca. Journal of Nutrition. December 1st 1999, Vol.129, No. 12, 2246-2250.

2001
Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man. S. Johansson, H. Melhus. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2001, Vol. 16. No. 10. 1899-1905.

2002
Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Long-term intake of a diet high in vitamin A may promote the development of osteoporotic hip fractures in women. Diane Feskanich, Sc D., Vishwa Singh, Ph.D., Walter C. Willett, Dr. PH., Graham A Colditz, M.D. Journal of the American Medical Association. January 2nd 2002, Vol.287, No.1, 47-54.

2002
Retinol intake and bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Conclusions: Vitamin A intake not far beyond the RDA is negatively associated with skeletal health in both men and women. Joanne H. Promislow, Deborah Goodman-Gruen, Slymen D.J., Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Journal of Bone Mineral Research. August 2002, Vol.17, Issue 8, 1349-1358.

2003
Serum retinol levels and the risk of fracture. Conclusions: Men with retinol levels above 103.12 mcg / dL (3.6 micromole / L) had a seven-fold increase in the risk of bone fractures compared to those with the lower levels. Karl Michaelsson M.D., Hans Lithell M.D., Bengt Vessby M.D., Hakan Melhus M.D. New England Journal of Medicine. January 2003, Vol.348, No.4, 287-294.

2004
Serum vitamin A concentrations and the risk of hip fracture among women 50 to 74 years old in the United States: a prospective analysis of the NHANES 1 follow-up study. Conclusions: Both low and high vitamin A concentrations may be associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. Alexander R. Opotowsky, M.D., MPH., John P. Bilezikian. The American Journal of Medicine. August 1st 2004, Vol.117, Issue 3, 169-174.

2012
Retinoic acid inhibits osteoblastic mineralization and promotes osteocyte formation. T. Lind, A. Sundgvist, L. Hu, G. Pejler, A. Jacobson, H. Melhus. Bone. May 2012, Vol. 50, Supplement 1, page s86.

2013
Vitamin A is a negative regulator of osteoblastic mineralization. Tomas Lind, Anders Sundqvist, Lijuan Hu, Gunnar Pejler, Goran Andersson, Annica Jacobson, Hakan Melhus, Luc Malaval. PLoS One. 2013, Vol. 8, No 12, e82388.

2015
Vitamin A intake, serum vitamin D and bone mineral density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition examination survey (KNHANES, 2008-2011). Nam-Seok Joo, Sung-Won Yang, Byeng Chun Song, Kyung-Jin Yeum. NUTRIENTS. 2015, Vol. 7, 1716-1727.

VIATAMIN A & D RECEPTOR ASSOCIATIONS

1993
Retinoid-X-receptors stimulate and 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibits 1, 25- dihydroxyvitamin D3-activated expression of the rat osteocalcin gene. P.N. McDonald, D.R. Dowd, S. Nakajima, M.A. Galligan, M.C. Reeder, C.A. Haussler, K. Ozato, M.R. Haussler. Molecular and Cellular Biology. September 1993, Vol.13, No.9, 5907-5917.

1998
Heterodimeric DNA binding by the vitamin D receptor and the retinoid x receptor is enhanced by 1, 25-Dihydroxy-vitamin D3 and inhibited by 9-cis-retinoic acid. Paul D. Thomson, Peter W. Jurutka, Carol A. Haussler, G. Kerr Whitfield, Mark R. Haussler. Journal of Biological Chemistry. April 3rd 1998, Vol.273, 8483-8491.

1999
Vitamin A antagonizes the action of vitamin D in rats. Cynthia M. Rohde, Margaret Manatt, Matgaret Clagett-Dame, Hector F. DeLuca. The Journal of Nutrition. December 1st 1999, Vol.129, No.12, 2246-2250.

2002
Retinoic acid receptors and cancer. Kenneth J. Soprano, Dianne Robert Soprano. Journal of Nutrition. December 1st 2002, Vol.133, No. 12, 3809s-3813s.

2005
Nuclear import of the retinoid X receptor, the vitamin D receptor, and their mutual heterodimer. Rubina Yasmin, Rebecca M.Williams, Ming Xu, Noa Noy. Journal of Biological Chemistry. December 2nd 2005, Vol.280, 40152-40160.

2013
Nuclear receptors in bone physiology and diseases. Yuuki Lmai, Min-Young Youn, Kazuki Inoue, Ichiro Takada, Alexander Kouzmenko, Shigeaki Kato. Physiology Reviews. April 2013, Vol.93, No. 2, 481-523

VITAMIN D ASSOCIATIONS

1997
Vitamin D derivatives inhibit the mitogenic effects of IGF-1 on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. S.P. Xie, S.Y. James, K.W. Colston. Journal of Endocrinology. 1997 Vol. 154, 495-504.

2000
1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and all-trans retinoic acid sensitize breast cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death. Qin Wang, Wen Yang, Myrna S. Uytingco, Sylvia Christakos, Robert Wieder. Journal of Cancer Research. April1st 2000, Vol.60, 2040.

2002
Mechanisms implicated in the growth regulatory effects of vitamin D in breast cancer. K.W. Colston, C.Mark Hansen. Endocrine-Related Cancer, March 2002, Vol. 9, No.4, 45-49.

2006
Vitamin D status and breast cancer risk. Kay W. Colston, Lorraine C. Lowe, Janine L. Mansi, Moray J. Campbell. Anticancer Research. July-August 2006, Vol.26, No.4A, 2573-2580. Impaired local generation of the hormonal form of vitamin D may contribute to the risk of breast cancer.

2007
What is the dose-response relationship between vitamin D and cancer risk? Cedric F. Garland, Dr.,Ph.D., William B. Grant, Ph.D., Sharif B. Mohr, MPH., Edward D. Gorham, MPH, Ph. D., Frank C. Garland, Ph.D. Nutrition Reviews. August 2007(11), Vol.65, No.8, s91-s95.

2008
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer- results of a large case control study. Sascha Abbas, Jakob Linseisen, Tracy Slanger, Silke Kropp, Elke Johnny Mutschelknauss. Dieter Flesch-Janys, Jenny Chang-Claude. Carcinogensis. 2008, Vol.29, No.1, 93-99.

2010
Vitamin D and breast cancer: Inhibition of estrogen synthesis and signaling. Aruna V. Krishnan, Srilatha Swami, David Feldman. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. July 2010, Vol.121, Issues. 1-2, 343-348.

2011
According to observational studies, a serum 25(OH) D levels of 47 ng / ml was associated with a 50% lower risk of breast cancer. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: Pooled Analysis. Anticancer Research. Sharif B. Mohr, Edward D. Gorham, John E. Alcaraz, Chrostopher J. Kane, Caroline A. Macera, J. Kellogg Parson, Deborah L. Wingard, Cedric F. Garland. Anticancer Research. September 2011, Vol. 31, No.9, 2939-2948.

2012
Vitamin D and the mammary gland: a review on its role in normal development and breast cancer. Nair Lopes, Joana Paredes, Jose Luis Costa, Bauke Ylstra, Fernando Schmitt. Journal of Breast Cancer Research. 2012, Vol. 14, 211.

2013
Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study. Fatimah M. Yousef, Elizabeth T. Jacobs, Paul T. Kang, Iman A. Hakim, Scott Going, Jehad M. Young, Rajaa M. Al-Raddadi, Taha A. Kumosani, Cynthia A. Thomson. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. July 2013, Vol. 98, No. 1, 105-110. Conclusion: Inverse association exist between vitamin D concentrations and breast cancer.

2014
The role of dietary factors in prevention and progression of breast cancer. Roberta Elisa Rossi, Marinos Pericleos, Dalvinder Mandair, Tara Whyand, Martyn Evan Caplin. Anticancer Research. December 2014, Vol. 34, No.12, 6861-6875.

VITAMIN A TOXICITY

1956
Hypervitaminosis A: experimental induction in the human subject. Robert W. Hillman, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. November 1956, Vol.4, No.6, 603-608.

1965
Hypervitaminosis A, Report of a Case. Stanley S. Bergen, Jr., M.D., Oswald A. Roels, Ph. D. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. February 1965, Vol.16, No.2, 265-269.

1965
Liver lipids in a case of hypervitaminosis A. Krause, RF. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. June 1965, Vol.16, No.6, 455-457.

1966
Serum Vitamin A in Kwashiorkor. Vinodini Reddy, S.G. Srikantia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. February 1966, Vol.18, No. 2, 105-109.

1975
Fatal self-medication with retinol and carrot juice. Z.A. Leitzer, T. Moor, IM Sharman. Proc Nutr Soc. September 1975, Vol. 34, No. 2, 44A-45A.

1976
Vitamin A transport in human vitamin A toxicity. Smith F.R., Goodman D.S. New England Journal of Medicine. April 1976, Vol. 294, No.14, 805-808.

1977
Abnormal liver function in chronic hypervitaminosis A.  G.C. Farrell, MD., P.S. Bhathal, Ph.D, L.W. Powell, PhD, MD. American Journal of Digestive Disease. 1977, Vol. 22, issue 8, pp 724-728.

1980
Chronic vitamin A intoxication in infants fed chicken liver. Patric C. Mahoney, Theodore M. Margolis, Thomas Knauss, Robert F. Labbe, R. Pedriatric. May 1980, Vol.65, No.5, 893-896.

1981
The luxus vitamins – A and B12. Donald S. McLaren, M.C. Ph.D., M.R.C.P.E. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. August 1981, Vol. 34, No.8, 1611-1616.

1987
Sever Hypervitaminosis A in Siblings: evidence of variable tolerance to retinol intake. Carpenter T.O., Pettifor J.M., Russell R.M., Pitha J., Mobarhan S., Ossip M.S., Wainer S., Anast C.S. Journal of Pediatrics. October 1987, Vol. 111, No. 4, 507-512.

1987
Recommended dietary intakes (RDA) of vitamin A in humans. James Allen Olson, Ph.D. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. April 1987, Vol. 45, No. 4, 704-716.

1989
Safety of vitamin A. Adrianne Bendich., Lillian Langseth., American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. February 1989, Vol.49, No.2, 358-371.

1990
Evaluation of vitamin A toxicity. John N. Hathcock, David G Hattan, Mamie Y Jenkins, Janet T. McDonald, P. Ramnathan Sundaresan, Virgina L. Wilkening. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. August 1990, Vol. 52, No. 2, 183-202.

1990
High vitamin A intake may carry a teratogenic risk. Eckhoff C., Nau H. Archives of Toxicology August 1990, Vol. 64, Issue 6, 502-503.

1990
Excess vitamin A injures the liver. Baker., W ten Hove., N. Kanagasundaram., G. Zaki., C.B. Leevy., O. Frank., C.M. Leevy. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. October 1990, Vol.9, No.5, 503-509.

1991
Liver damage caused by therapeutic vitamin administration: estimate of dose-related toxicity in 41 cases. Geubel A.P., De Galocsy C., Alves N., Rahier J., Dive C. Gastroenterology. June 1991, Vol. 100, No.6, 1701-1709.

1994
Vitamin A hepatotoxicity: a cautionary note regarding 25,000 IU supplements. Thomas E. Kowalski, M.D., Magdy Falestiny M.D., Emma Furth M.D., Peter F. Malet M.D. The American Journal of Medicine. December 1994, Vol. 97, No.6, 523-528.

1997
Role of Ito cells in the liver function. Flisiak R. Pol J. Pathol. 1997, Vol. 48, No. 3, 139-145.

1998
Excessive dietary intake of Vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of hip fracture. Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Kindmark A., Bergstrom R., Holmberg L., Mallmin H., Wolk A., Ljunghall S. Annuals of Internal Medicine 1998, Vol. 129, No. 10, 770-778.

2002
Estimating the potential for vitamin A toxicity in women and young children. Lindsay H. Allen., Marjorie Haskel. Journal of Nutrition. September 2002, Vol. 132, (9Supp), 2907s-2919s.

2003
Water-miscible, emulsified, and solid forms of retinol supplements are more toxic than oil-based preparations. Anne M. Myhre, Monica H. Carlsen, Siv K Bohn, Heidi L. Wold, Petter Laake, Rune Blomhoff. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. December 2003, Vol.78, No.6, 1152-1159.

2006
Acute and chronic toxic effects of vitamin A. Kristina L. Penniston., Sherry A. Tanumihardjo. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. February 2006, Vol.83, No. 2, 191-201.

2006
Risk of vitamin A toxicity from candy-like chewable vitamin supplements for children. Hugh Simon Lam, MRCPCH, Chung Mo Chow, MRCPCH, Wing Tat Poon, MBChB, Chi Kong Lai, MSc, Kwan Chee Allen Chan, FRCPA, Wai Lan Yeung, MRCP, Joannie Hui, MRCP, Albert Yan WoChan, MD, Park Cheung Ng, MD. August 2006, Pediatrics. Vol. 118, No. 2, 820-824.

2011
Reported Case of Hypercalcemia Secondary to Hypervitaminosis A in a 6-Year Old Boy with Autism. Arpita Kalla Vyas, Neil H. White. Case Reports in Endocrinology. Volume 2011, Article ID 424712, 5 pages.

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